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sábado, 1 de agosto de 2009

Corpos incorruptíveis

Dentre as mais incríveis relíquias religiosas estão os corpos de santos e beatos que supostamente permaneceram incorruptos – ou seja, não sucumbiram à decomposição orgânica. Contudo, em muitos casos a investigação revelou uma explicação natural bem mais plausível.

Por exemplo, quatro anos após São Felipe Néri (1515-1595) ser enterrado sobre a nave de uma pequena capela, seu corpo foi encontrado tão bem preservado – segundo os médicos – que foi considerado “indubitavelmente miraculoso”. Este caso simplesmente indica o estado de credulidade dos médicos da época (ou então a pressão que eles sofreram para atestar o milagre) uma vez que sempre se soube que as vísceras de Felipe haviam sido removidas e o corpo embalsamado de maneira simples logo após a autópsia do santo em 1595. Também uma referência recente ao “último embalsamamento” sugere que o corpo tenha sido repetidamente preservado (Cruz 1977, 210-12).

Em muitos casos os corpos devem ser classificados, na melhor das hipóteses, como antes incorruptíveis. Por exemplo, o corpo de Santo Eduardo o Confessor (1004-1066) foi exumado 36 anos após sua morte e achado “perfeitamente” incorrupto; contudo quando a urna funerária foi reaberta em 1685 os restos mortais haviam sido reduzidos ao esqueleto. Também, quando o corpo de Santa Inês de Montepulciano (1268-1317) foi colocado entre as paredes do altar principal da igreja, o túmulo infelizmente estava bem úmido, provocando a decomposição do corpo.

Ainda outros corpos “incorruptíveis” são mais acuradamente descritos como mumificados; isto é, o corpo está dessecado – uma condição que pode ocorrer naturalmente sob certas condições (tais como ser mantido num túmulo seco ou catacumbas), ou ser induzido por embalsamamento. Por exemplo, 45 anos após a morte de São João Maria Batista Vianney (1786-1859) seus restos mortais foram achados “secos e escurecidos” mas as vísceras foram removidas como medida de conservação e a face coberta com uma máscara de cera (como é comum nesses casos).

Em outros casos, o corpo aparentemente saponificou – um estado natural no qual os tecidos do corpo essencialmente transformam-se em sabão por debaixo da pele endurecida. A substância amoniacal, semelhante a sabão, é chamada “adipocere” e ocorre em alguns casos de enterro em solo úmido. Enquanto que casos de saponificação podem resultar em alegações de incorruptibilidade em culturas católicas, em certos países eslavos realimenta-se a lenda do “morto-vivo” espetando uma estaca afiada de pau no coração do “vampiro”. Na América do Norte rural tais casos são conhecidos como exemplos de pessoas “petrificadas”.

Um dos casos mais intrigantes de incorrupção é o de Santa Zita (1218-1278), que viveu em Lucca, na Itália. Quando morreu, foi sepultada numa cova comum. Exumado três séculos depois, seu corpo estava completo e intacto. Sem nenhum sinal de manipulação. Permanece assim até hoje, passados mais de 700 anos. "É uma bela múmia", diz o legista italiano Gino Fornaciari, da Universidade de Pisa, que já examinou vários "incorruptíveis".

Como Santa Zita, os corpos de santos como Ubaldo de Gubbio e Savina Petrilli se mantêm conservados. Especialistas acreditam que as condições ambientais existentes no interior das igrejas, onde a maioria dos "incorruptíveis" foi sepultada, podem explicar o fenômeno. "A temperatura nas igrejas é baixa e há pouca variação entre o inverno e o verão", observa o médico Ezio Fulcheri, legista da Universidade de Gênova.

Afinal, o que concluir acerca da incorruptibilidade? A morte de todo o ser vivo é seguida pela sua inexorável decomposição e reciclagem em elementos simples e, por outro lado, não existem evidências fortes para sustentar que algumas centenas ou milhares de santos e beatos constituam uma exceção às leis da natureza. Assim como muitos outros “milagres”, a incorruptibilidade é aceita pelo fiel com pouca ou nenhuma investigação para ver se existe ou não uma explicação mais plausível do que a intervenção divina.


CORPO DE SANTA BERNADETE (FRANÇA - MORREU EM 16 DE ABRIL DE 1879)
ESSE É SEU CORPO ATUALMENTE INTACTO



CORPO Santo Cura d'Ars, Ars, França (FRANÇA - MORREU EM 1859)


Santa Verónica Guiliani, Clarissa - ANO DE MORTE 1727



VIDEO

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